We propose a generative model and an inference scheme for epidemic processes on dynamic, adaptive contact networks. Network evolution is formulated as a link-Markovian process, which is then coupled to an individual-level stochastic SIR model, in order to describe the interplay between epidemic dynamics on a network and network link changes. A Markov chain Monte Carlo framework is developed for likelihood-based inference from partial epidemic observations, with a novel data augmentation algorithm specifically designed to deal with missing individual recovery times under the dynamic network setting. Through a series of simulation experiments, we demonstrate the validity and flexibility of the model as well as the efficacy and efficiency of the data augmentation inference scheme. The model is also applied to a recent real-world dataset on influenza-like-illness transmission with high-resolution social contact tracking records.