Gradient-based optimization algorithms can be studied from the perspective of limiting ordinary differential equations (ODEs). Motivated by the fact that existing ODEs do not distinguish between two fundamentally different algorithms---Nesterov's accelerated gradient method for strongly convex functions (NAG-SC) and Polyak's heavy-ball method---we study an alternative limiting process that yields high-resolution ODEs. We show that these ODEs permit a general Lyapunov function framework for the analysis of convergence in both continuous and discrete time. We also show that these ODEs are more accurate surrogates for the underlying algorithms; in particular, they not only distinguish between NAG-SC and Polyak's heavy-ball method, but they allow the identification of a term that we refer to as "gradient correction" that is present in NAG-SC but not in the heavy-ball method and is responsible for the qualitative difference in convergence of the two methods. Finally, by modifying the high-resolution ODE of NAG-C, we obtain a family of new optimization methods that are shown to maintain the accelerated convergence rates of NAG-C for smooth convex functions.