There is increasing interest in creating data products for ambient air pollution levels at fine spatial scales and with complete spatial-temporal coverage. This is often accomplished by combining monitoring measurements with computer model simulations, satellite imagery, and land use/meteorological variables. Recently, these data products have been used to support spatially-resolved health effect analyses, as well as to perform impact assessments in low- and middle-income countries. Several studies on the health effects of air pollution on emergency department visits and adverse birth outcomes will be discussed to highlight advantages and challenges associated with the use of these novel data products. Particularly, under a measurement error framework, we will discuss how exposure uncertainty may play a role in subsequent health effect estimation.