Despite the great promise in using functional neuroimaging to map brain to mind and understand human health and brain disorders, thus far it has had minimal impact on clinical practice and public health. Here, we review emerging techniques that, if used judiciously, could enable a quantum leap forward in developing translational applications. First, we review the state of translational neuroimaging and emerging techniques. Then, we outline an approach that uses these new techniques in specific ways to develop brain signatures that can be shared, tested in multiple contexts, and used in translational settings. The approach brings together ideas from statistics, 'big data,' replicability, and open science- ideas that, together, constitute a cultural shift in science that is bringing translational goals within reach.