Keywords: pain, veterinary, accelerometer
Methods for assessing pain in animals employ a variety of inputs, from subjective behavioral observations to objective measures. Pain assessment tools utilize human proxies (owners, investigators) to score selected behaviors associated with pain. Technology has also been used to measure level of animal activity as a potential surrogate for pain. In human medicine, similar methods are developed for patients who cannot self-report. We will discuss advances and challenges in the development of assessment tools in these populations, and additional considerations in their use for drug evaluation.