Abstract:

The noun "independence" and adjective "independent" appear in several parts of the probability and statistics curriculum, including independent samples in inference, independent events in probability, and independent variables in some formulations of modeling. Although the unifying concept of independence is always present, many learners have trouble with the contextual differences. To make things more complicated, the probability definition is not the same as the algebraic function definition or the colloquial everyday definition. The key difference is directionality  If A is independent of B, must B be independent of A? In this poster, I will compare definitions included in probability/statistics textbooks. I will also be include comments from high school teachers about independence and its challenges, with a goal of discussion about how to present the concept more clearly.
